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But it can be tricky…. The default window size that iPerf uses varies by machine type and operating system.

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  2. How To: Network / TCP / UDP Tuning?
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For a 50 ms latency, the window size needs to be 3. Indeed, iPerf gives you the option to set the window size, but if you try to set it to 3. In this case, the devil is the operating system that has a hard limit on the TCP window size that an application can use. It looks like in this case the limit is Kbytes. These limits exist for good reasons. Larger TCP windows take more system memory and if you have multiple applications running, using large windows they may bog down the system.

Or the system may deny TCP connections if it is running out of memory.

TCP basics

The throughput of a communication is limited by two windows: the congestion window and the receive window. The congestion window tries not to exceed the capacity of the network congestion control ; the receive window tries not to exceed the capacity of the receiver to process data flow control. The receiver may be overwhelmed by data if for example it is very busy such as a Web server. Each TCP segment contains the current value of the receive window. If, for example, a sender receives an ack which acknowledges byte and specifies a receive window of bytes , the sender will not send packets after byte , even if the congestion window allows it.

The TCP window scale option is needed for efficient transfer of data when the bandwidth-delay product is greater than 64K. For instance, if a T1 transmission line of 1. This is done by specifying a one byte shift count in the header options field. It can be accessed either from a text window or from a web browser.

Enabling High Performance Data Transfers [PSC]

In text mode, one can simply type:. This is a web based java server that does a couple of short network tests and measures bandwidth between the host and the server. This tool shows the path and the largest MTU supported on that path from a server at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center to the host in question. Note that the instructions below only indicate that they have been tested for specific OS versions. FreeBSD 7. The default maximum value is KB which is likely too small. These should likely be increased, e.

When using larger socket buffers, you probably need to make sure that the TCP window scaling option is enabled.

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The default is not enabled! If you want "normal" TCP behavior you should. If you wish to disable MTU discovery, you can toggle it with the sysctl variable:.

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  • What is TCP tuning??
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  • NB: Recent versions of Linux version 2. Except in some rare cases, manual tuning is unlikely to substantially improve the performance of these kernels over most network paths, and is not generally recommended. Since autotuning and large default buffer sizes were released progressively over a succession of different kernel versions, it is best to inspect and only adjust the tuning as needed.

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    When you upgrade kernels, you may want to consider removing any local tuning. With autotuning, the receiver buffer size and TCP window size is dynamically updated autotuned for each connection.

    How to calculate maximum achievable TCP throughput

    Sender side autotuning has been present and unconditionally enabled for many years now. These are arrays of three values: minimum, initial and maximum buffer size. They are used to set the bounds on autotuning and balance memory usage while under memory stress. Note that these are controls on the actual memory usage not just TCP window size and include memory used by the socket data structures as well as memory wasted by short packets in large buffers. The maximum values have to be larger than the BDP of the path by some suitable overhead. With autotuning, the middle value just determines the initial buffer size.

    It is best to set it to some optimal value for typical small flows. With autotuning, excessively large initial buffer waste memory and can even hurt performance. If autotuning is not present Linux 2. This is NOT recommended for kernels with autotuning. You do not need to adjust these unless your are planing to use some form of application tuning.

    TCP Buffer Issue?

    NB: Manually adjusting socket buffer sizes with setsockopt disables autotuning. Application that are optimized for other operating systems may implicitly defeat Linux autotuning. The following values which are the defaults for 2.

    The three elements are initialized at boot time to appropriate fractions of the available system memory. These are the default buffer sizes for non-TCP sockets e. The following is a useful shortcut for inspecting all tcp parameters:. Web also provides complete TCP instrumentation and some additional features to improve performance on paths with very large BDP.

    Mac OS X has a single sysctl parameter, kern.